Enhancing Neural Plasticity with Psilocybin: Promoting Adaptive Predictive Models

The Importance Of Flexibility

The human brain constantly generates predictive models to anticipate and make sense of the world around us. These models, which are shaped by our experiences, beliefs, and expectations, play a critical role in guiding our thoughts, emotions, and actions.

However, when these predictive models become inflexible and resistant to change, they can lead to psychological discomfort, as the brain struggles to reconcile its expectations with the reality of lived experiences. Recent studies have suggested that psilocybin may assist in enhancing neuroplasticity, or the brain’s ability to reorganize itself and form new connections. By promoting neuroplasticity, psilocybin may help to break down rigid patterns of thinking and facilitate the formation of more adaptive predictive models.

In this article, we will explore the neurological mechanisms behind inflexible predictive models, discussing how the brain processes prediction errors and the impact of cognitive biases on the maintenance of rigid beliefs and expectations, and consider the potential role of psilocybin in enhancing neuroplasticity as a means of promoting psychological flexibility.

To better understand the relationship between inflexible predictive models and well-being, we will also examine the importance of fostering more adaptive and flexible models in promoting harmony with lived experiences and increasing positive psychological valence. Through the cultivation of cognitive flexibility, mindfulness practices, exposure to novel experiences, and exploration of emerging therapeutic approaches such as psilocybin, individuals can enhance their ability to update and refine their predictive models, ultimately leading to greater happiness and psychological well-being.

Furthermore, we will discuss how Eleusinia, a science-based retreat, combines the therapeutic potential of psilocybin with mindfulness meditation and novel experiences in a supportive and nurturing environment. Our retreat offers a unique opportunity for individuals to foster more adaptive and flexible predictive models, promoting greater resilience, happiness, and psychological health.

In shedding light on the neurological underpinnings of inflexible predictive models and the importance of adaptability in human well-being, this article aims to emphasize the need for psychological interventions and coping strategies that cultivate mental flexibility. By embracing approaches that promote the development of flexible predictive models, individuals can better navigate the complexities of life, improve their mental health, and enhance their overall well-being.

Flexible mental models

The Predictive Brain

The hierarchical predictive coding theory is a neuroscientific framework that explains how the brain processes sensory information and generates predictions about the future. The theory suggests that our brain creates a hierarchy of predictions, which spans from simple sensory information, such as the perception of color, to more complex and abstract concepts, like social interactions or beliefs. This hierarchical organization allows the brain to efficiently process information, as predictions at each level help refine and inform predictions at the next level.

The Role of Prediction Errors

A crucial aspect of the hierarchical predictive coding theory is the role of prediction errors. Prediction errors occur when the brain’s expectations do not match the actual sensory input. When a discrepancy arises, the brain generates a prediction error signal, which propagates through the hierarchical structure, updating the model to better align with the experienced reality. This process allows the brain to learn from new experiences and adapt its predictions to anticipate future events better.

For example, imagine you’re about to drink from a glass of water, but instead of water, it’s filled with vinegar. Your brain would have predicted the taste of water based on the appearance of the glass, but upon taking a sip, the sensory input (vinegar taste) doesn’t match the prediction. A prediction error occurs, you respond accordingly, and your brain adjusts its expectations accordingly. In the future, you may be more likely to hesitate and examine your cup of clear liquid more cautiously before committing to a large gulp.

Your observations inform your expectations which are then contradicted by your experience creating a conflict which can feel unpleasant, requiring your brain to update its expectations.

Sensory Processing and Top-Down Predictions

The hierarchical predictive coding theory emphasizes the interplay between bottom-up sensory processing and top-down predictions. Bottom-up sensory processing refers to the flow of information from sensory organs to higher levels of the brain, where it is processed and integrated. Top-down predictions, on the other hand, refer to the influence of higher-level brain areas on lower-level sensory processing. This bidirectional flow of information allows the brain to generate predictions based on both prior experiences and the current sensory context.

Predictive Coding

The Importance of Neural Plasticity

Neural plasticity is the brain’s ability to change and adapt its structure and function in response to new experiences. It plays a crucial role in the formation and updating of predictive models. As the brain encounters new experiences or sensory inputs that deviate from its predictions, neural connections are modified, enabling it to better match its predictions with the experienced reality. Neural plasticity is essential for the brain’s ability to learn, adapt, and create flexible predictive models. If the predictive models are too inflexible to properly update to harmonize with experienced reality, then you may constantly experience the discomfort of prediction errors.

The Role of Neuromodulators

Neuromodulators, such as dopamine and serotonin, play a significant role in the brain’s predictive processes. They modulate the strength of neural connections and influence the brain’s ability to update its predictions. For instance, dopamine is involved in signaling prediction errors and adjusting the brain’s expectations based on the magnitude of the error. Serotonin, on the other hand, is involved in regulating the balance between the exploration of new information and the maximization of existing knowledge, which influences the brain’s ability to seek new information and update its predictive models.

Serotonin and Dopamine

Rigidity & Mismatch with Reality

Inflexible predictive models are characterized by their rigidity and resistance to change, which can result in a mismatch between the brain’s expectations and lived experiences, leading to negative emotions such as depression, frustration, and anxiety. This inflexibility can be reinforced by cognitive biases such as confirmation bias and the availability heuristic. The inability of inflexible predictive models to adapt to changing circumstances can have significant implications for mental health and hinder social functioning, leading to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and social anxiety.

An individual’s personal identity is closely tied to their predictive models, which can lead to resistance to change, particularly when the beliefs or expectations at the core of one’s identity are inflexible. In response to the negative emotions associated with inflexible predictive models, individuals may adopt maladaptive coping mechanisms such as substance abuse, disordered eating, or self-harm, which can exacerbate mental health issues and perpetuate the cycle of inflexibility and depression.

Effective emotion regulation is critical for managing the negative emotions associated with inflexible predictive models. Developing healthy emotion regulation strategies, such as cognitive reappraisal or mindfulness-based techniques, can help individuals become more adaptive and resilient in the face of change, ultimately reducing the negative impact of inflexible predictive models on their well-being and levels of happiness. By addressing cognitive biases, fostering healthy emotion regulation strategies, and promoting flexible thinking, individuals can better navigate the complexities of life, improve their mental health, and enhance their overall well-being.

Anna just wants to have a happy family dinner with her husband and children. But Anna has deeply rooted, inflexible beliefs about what a perfect dinner and a happy family should look like. Her beliefs may also include expectations of herself, such as what a good wife and mother should act and feel like. Perhaps the idea of a happy family in her model looks a lot like the stock photo below, but this is a stock photo. Those are actors and models, and none of it is real. Anna’s inflexible beliefs are preventing her from enjoying her family dinner as it is, in all of its beautiful complexity. It may also be preventing her from pursuing the changes that may be needed to pursue growth and happiness.

The Importance of Flexible Predictive Models

Flexible predictive models are important for promoting happiness and well-being. They allow the brain to adapt to new information and changes in the environment, resulting in increased harmony with lived experiences and positive psychological valence. Cognitive flexibility is essential for developing these adaptive predictive models and enhancing problem-solving and decision-making abilities. Additionally, flexible predictive models can positively impact interpersonal relationships, leading to empathy, understanding, and effective communication. By prioritizing the development of flexible predictive models, individuals can become more adaptable, resilient, and equipped to navigate life’s challenges.

Promoting Flexibility in Predictive Models

To promote flexibility in predictive models, it is recommended to engage in activities that challenge the brain, such as learning a new language or participating in problem-solving activities. Mindfulness and meditation can also help individuals become more aware of their thoughts and emotions, allowing them to adapt their expectations accordingly. Effective emotion regulation techniques, such as cognitive reappraisal, can help manage negative emotions and promote adaptability. Exposure to novel experiences and building social connections can also encourage the brain to update its predictive models. Recent research has shown that psilocybin may promote flexibility in predictive models by increasing neural plasticity and dissolving rigid thinking patterns.


Fostering flexibility in predictive models is crucial for enhancing psychological well-being. Strategies such as developing cognitive flexibility, practicing mindfulness and meditation, utilizing emotion regulation techniques, exposing oneself to novel experiences, exploring the potential benefits of psilocybin, and building strong social connections can all contribute to the cultivation of more adaptive and flexible predictive models.

Research has demonstrated that psilocybin promotes the growth of new brain cells, particularly in the hippocampus, which is a region of the brain that is important for memory and learning. Furthermore, psilocybin has been found to increase the density of dendritic spines, which are tiny protrusions on neurons that facilitate communication between brain cells. By enhancing neuroplasticity, psilocybin may help to facilitate the reorganization of neural networks and the formation of new, more adaptive patterns of thought and behavior. In addition, a psychedelic session is also a rather intense “novel experience” in and of itself.

At the Eleusinia Psilo Retreat in Mexico, we offer a science-based and transformative experience, combining the therapeutic potential of psilocybin with mindfulness practices and engaging activities in a supportive and nurturing environment. By offering a holistic approach to well-being, the retreat provides an unparalleled opportunity for individuals to cultivate greater happiness, resilience, and psychological health, ultimately leading to a more fulfilling and satisfying existence.

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